The market for lithium-ion batteries is swelling, and manufacturers are stepping up efforts to develop next-generation technologies that will allow for larger capacity, safer and longer-operating batteries.

As an attractive energy storage technology, lithium-ion batteries are commonly used to power portable electronic devices and in applications that require fast emerging applications, such as plug-in electric vehicles and integrated network systems. Commercially, graphite is used as an anodic material, but its capacity is below the desired expectations for the next generation of high capacity density Li-Bs. 

Metal oxide nanoparticles could be a promising alternative as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, as these materials can provide more than twice the gravimetric capacity and six times the volumetric capacity compared to the graphite anode. However, they often have certain drawbacks such as low electrical conductivity or large volume change during the lithium-ion/delithium processes.

The development of advanced materials composed of metal oxide nanoparticles and carbon materials with high surface area and good electric conductivity as graphene could be a strategy to address these drawbacks by improving battery cycle stability, reversible capacity, and rate capability.